Clinical Care Recommended Standards
National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention: Transforming Health Systems Initiative Work Group. (2018). Recommended standard care for people with suicide risk: Making health care suicide safe. Washington, DC: Education Development Center, Inc
Joint Commission Sentinel Event Alert 56
SAFE-T Suicide assessment five-step evaluation and triage (SAFE-T) pocket card
Beck AT, Steer, RA. Manual for the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1993b.
McDowell, Lineberry, Bostwick 2011 Practical Suicide Risk Assessment for Primary Care Settings. Mayo Clinic Proceedings
McDowell, A, Lineberry, TW, and Bostwick, JM. Practical Suicide-Risk Management for the Busy Primary Care Physician.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Aug; 86(8): 792–800.
Kelly, KT, Knudson, MP. Are No-Suicide Contracts Effective in Preventing Suicide in Suicidal Patients Seen by Primary Care Physicians? Archives of Family Medicine, 2000, 9 (10): 1119-21.
Stanford, EJ, Goetz, RR, Bloom, JD. The No Harm Contract in the emergency assessment of suicidal risk. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1994 8 (55): 344-348. https://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-no-harm-contract-in-the-emergency-assessment-of-suicidal-risk-2
Impact of Follow-up Contact:
Luxton DD, June JD, & Comtois KA. Can postdischarge follow-up contacts prevent suicide and suicidal behavior? A review of the evidence. Crisis 2013;34(1): 32-41
Studies of Lethal Means Reduction:
Gunnell D, Fernando R, Hewagama M, et al. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka. International J Epid. 2007; 36:1235-1242.
Kreitman N. The coal gas story: United Kingdom suicide rates 1960-71. Brit J Prev Soc Med. 1976; 30:86-93.
Lubin G, Werbeloff N, Halperin D, et al. Decrease in suicide rates after a change of policy reducing access to firearms in adolescents: a naturalistic epidemiological study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010; 40:421-424.
Timing, Suicidal Process and Attempts:
Fawcett J, Scheftner WA, Fogg L, Clark DC, Young MA, et al. (1990) Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry 147: 1189–1194.
Deisenhammer EA, Ing CM, Strauss R, et al. The duration of the suicidal process: how much time is left for intervention between consideration and accomplishment of a suicide attempt? J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70:19-24.
Owens D, Horrocks J, House A. Fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2002; 181:193-199.
Stanley B, Brown GK. Safety planning intervention: A brief intervention to mitigate suicide risk. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2011; 19:256-264.
Stanley, B., & Brown, G. K. (2008b). Safety planning intervention: Brief instructions. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.suicidesafetyplan.com/uploads/Safety_Planning_-_Cog___Beh_Practice.pdf
Lethal Means Counseling:
Bryan CJ, Stone SL, Rudd MD. A practical, evidence-based approach for means-restriction counseling with suicidal patients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2011; 42(5):339-346.
More on Lethal Means Counseling
Linehan MM, Comtois KA, Murray AM, et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psych. 2006; 63:757-766.
Linehan, M.M. (2014). DBT® Skills Training Manual, Second Edition. New York: Guilford Press.
Linehan, MM, Tutek, DA, Heard, HL, Armstrong, HE. Interpersonal outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment for chronically suicidal bor­derline patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1994, 151, 1771–1776.
CBT for Suicide Prevention
Brown GK, Ten Have T, Henriques GR, et al. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005; 294:563-570.
Stanley, B, Brown, G, Brent, D, Wells, K, Poling, K, Curry, J, Kennard, BD, Wagner, A, Cwik, M, Brunstein Klomek, A, Goldstein, T, Benedetto, V, Barnett, S, and Hughes, J. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 48(10): 1005–1013.
Jobes DA. The CAMS approach to suicide risk: philosophy and clinical procedures. Suicidology. 2009; 14:1-5.
Jobes DA, Wong SA, Conrad AK, Drozd JF, Neal-Walden T. The collaborative assessment and management of suicidality versus treatment as usual: A retrospective study with suicidal outpatients. Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior. 2005;35:483–497. doi: 10.1521/suli.2005.35.5.483.
Comtois KA, Jobes DA, O’Connor S, Atkins DC, Janis K, Chessen C, Yuodelis FC. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS): Feasibility trial for next-day appointment services. Depression and Anxiety. 2011;28:963–972.
Attachment-based Family Therapy:
Diamond, G., Russon, J., & Levy, S. (2016). Attachment-based family therapy: A review of the empirical support. Family Process, 55(3), p. 595-610.
Diamond GS, Wintersteen MB, Brown GK, Diamond GM, Gallop R, Shelef K, Levy S. Attachment-based family therapy for adolescents with suicidal ideation: a randomized controlled trial. J Amer Acad Child Adol Psychiatry. 2010; 49(2):122-131.
Gysin-Maillart, A, Schwab, S, Soravia, L, Megert, M, Michel, K. (2016) A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP). PLoS Med. 2016 Mar; 13(3): e1001968. Published online 2016 Mar 1. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.
Kennard BD, Biernesser C, Wolfe KL, et al. Developing a brief suicide prevention intervention and mobile phone application: a qualitative report. J Technol Hum Serv. 2015; 33:345-357.
Fournier, JC, DeRubeis, R, Hollon, SD, Dimidjian, S, Amsterdam, JD, Shelton, RC, and Fawcett, J, Lineberry, M, Bostwick, M. Antidepressant Drug effects and Depression Severity: A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis. JAMA. 2010 January 6; 303(1): 47–53. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1943.
Gibbons RD, Hur K, Bhaumik DK, Mann JJ. The relationship between antidepressant prescription rates and rate of early adolescent suicide. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;163(11):1898-904.
Moutier, C. 2004 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) BBW for “suicidality” in patients taking antidepressants confused the public, prescribers, and patients. Op-Ed, July 2014, “Black Box” Warning. https://afsp.org/op-ed-black-box-warning/
Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Davis P, et al. Decreased risk of suicides and attempts during long-term lithium treatment: a meta-analytic review. Bipolar Disord. 2006; 8:625-239.
Tondo L, Isacsson G, Baldessarini R. Suicidal behaviour in bipolar disorder: risk and prevention. CNS Drugs. 2003;17(7):491-511.
Cipriani A, Hawton K, Stockton S, Geddes JR. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Jun 27;346:f3646. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f3646.
Media Guidelines for Reporting on Suicide